Hotel B&B Trentino-Alto-Adige
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region in Northern Italy. It consists of two provinces: Trento and Bolzano, where in the latter the majority of the population speak German as their first language. The region was part of Austria-Hungary (and its predecessor, the Austrian Empire) from 1815 until its annexation by Italy in 1919. It was officially referred to as Venezia Tridentina between 1919 and 1947 and Trentino-Alto Adige/Tiroler Etschland between 1947 and 1972. In English, the commonly used term is Trentino-Alto Adige; Trentino-South Tyrol is also sometimes used. The Italian name of the region is Trentino-Alto Adige, but very rarely it is called Trentino-Sudtirolo. Together with the Austrian state of Tyrol it is represented by the Euroregion Tirol-Südtirol/Alto Adige-Trentino.
The autonomous region is bordered by Austria to the north, by Switzerland to the north-west and by the Italian regions of Lombardy and Veneto to the west and south, respectively. It covers 13,619 km² (5,256 mi²). It is extremely mountainous, covering a large part of the Dolomites and the southern Alps. The lowest pass across the Alps, the Brenner Pass, is located at the far north of the region on the border with Austria.
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is divided into two autonomous provinces: Trento and Bolzano.The region of current Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol was conquered by the Romans in 15 BC. After the end of the Western Empire, it was divided between the Lombards (from the south up to Salorno), Alamanni (Vinschgau-Val Venosta) and Bavarians (from Bolzano to Brenner). After the creation of the Kingdom of Italy under Charlemagne, the frontier mark of Trento included the counties of Bolzano and Venosta, while the Duchy of Bavaria received the remained part.
From the 11th century onwards, part of the region was governed by the prince-bishops of Trento and Brixen, to whom the Holy Roman Emperors had given extensive temporal powers over their bishoprics. The rest was part of the County of Tyrol: in 1363 its last titular, Marguerite of Gorizia (von Görz) ceded it to the House of Habsburg. The region was largely Germanized in the early Renaissance (14th century), and important German poets like Oswald von Wolkenstein were originally of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
In 1943, when the Italian government signed an armistice with the Allies, the region was occupied by Germany, which reorganised it as the Operation Zone of the Alpine Foothills and put it under the administration of Gauleiter Franz Hofer. The region was de facto annexed to the German Reich (with the addition of the province of Belluno) until the end of the war. This status ended along with the Nazi regime and Italian rule was restored in 1945.
Italy and Austria negotiated an agreement in 1946, put into effect in 1947 when a new Italian constitution was promulgated, that the region would be granted considerable autonomy. German and Italian were both made official languages, and German-language education was permitted once more. However, the implementation of the agreement was not seen as satisfactory by either the German-speaking population or the Austrian government. The issue became the cause of significant friction between the two countries and was taken up by the United Nations in 1960. A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, partly because of a campaign of terrorism by German-speaking separatists.
The issue was only resolved in 1971 when a new Austro-Italian treaty was signed and ratified. It stipulated that disputes in the province of Bolzano would be submitted for settlement to the International Court of Justice in The Hague, that the province would receive greater autonomy from Italy, and that Austria would not interfere in Bolzano's internal affairs. The new agreement proved broadly satisfactory to the parties involved and the separatist tensions soon eased. Matters were helped further by Austria's accession to the European Union in 1995, which has helped to improve cross-border cooperation.
Part of the information regarding the history, the art, the traditions and the events about the city of Trentino Alto Adige on this page is drawn from www.wikipedia.org
respecting the GNU Free Documentation License.